Designers use symmetry, color, value, shape and position to balance and neatly order objects.
Balance with Symmetry
Butterflies, maple leaves, and snowflakes can be evenly divided down the center. They are symmetrically balanced. Humans are attracted to symmetrical designs partially because our own bodies are symmetrical.
A designer can neatly order images or blocks of text, distributing equal portions along both sides of an invisible vertical axis. Human elements, such as a face or body placed symmetrically, can help us make an emotional connection.
Balance with Color
A small area of color can balance a much larger neutral area. Warm colors carry more weight visually than cool colors. Oranges and reds jump out at us. Blues and greens tend to recede. So a large area of a cool color can be used to balance a small area of a warm color.
Balance by Value
The contrast of light and dark attracts our attention. Black against white creates a strong contrast. A contrast of values on each side of a design creates so much eye interest that a tension is created between the sides. The eye moves from one to the other in an attempt to pull the two elements together.
Balance by Shape and Position
A large, simple shape (or image or text area) can be balanced by smaller, more complex elements. The larger shape generally attracts attention to the overall composition. The smaller elements are viewed as secondary. The farther an object is from the center of the page, the more visual weight it suggests. A single, very small element can counterbalance a large one (or group) if placed at the far side of a design.
For example, although this logo is no match for the large image on its own, its position in the outermost edge of the composition levels this design.